Many children with noisy breathing can be assessed with a thorough history and examination and may not need formal endoscopic examination of the airway

Some may benefit from a flexible office endoscopy passed through the nose or mouth

In a few cases a further endoscopy under anaesthesia may be needed. This assesses the voicebox and the windpipe. It is a specialist procedure best undertaken by an experienced team of paediatric otolaryngologist and paediatric anaesthesiologist.

See a presentation on paediatric endoscopy